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Observation of the transition to metal hydrogen

Video from the joint ESRF-ILL colloquia. Understanding how and when molecular solid hydrogen may transform into a metal has stimulated many theoretical works since the 30’s. It is still an opened theoretical question and an experimental challenge. The quest for metal hydrogen has pushed major...

Keywords: metal hydrogen, high pressure, insulator-metal phase transition

Observation of the transition to metal hydrogen https://pan-training.eu/materials/observation-of-the-transition-to-metal-hydrogen Video from the joint ESRF-ILL colloquia. Understanding how and when molecular solid hydrogen may transform into a metal has stimulated many theoretical works since the 30’s. It is still an opened theoretical question and an experimental challenge. The quest for metal hydrogen has pushed major developments of modern experimental high pressure physics and still various claims of its observation have remained unconfirmed. In 2020, we observed and characterized the transition to metal hydrogen near 425 GPa at 80 K [1]. Very recently, the transition to metal deuterium has also been observed, showing a significant isotopic shift in pressure. In this talk, our experimental strategy will be presented as following three steps namely: 1) Demonstrate the possibility to generate pressures well over 400 GPa ( that is the limit of the conventional Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC)) by loading hydrogen in the recently developed Toroidal-DAC[2]; 2) Exhibit a reliable non-intrusive signature of the insulator-metal phase transition, i.e. total IR absorption by using the IR synchrotron radiation at SOLEIL; 3) Record combined infrared, Raman and visible observation measurements to disclose the physics at stake at the insulator-metal transition. On-going experimental developments to further characterize the intriguing properties of metal hydrogen will be discussed. [1] Synchrotron infra-red spectroscopic evidence of the probable transition to metal hydrogen. P. Loubeyre, F. Occelli and P. Dumas. Nature 577, 631 (2020). [2] Toroidal diamond anvil cell for fine measurements under extreme static pressures: data on Al, Ar and Au up to 603 GPa. A. Dewaele, P. Loubeyre, F. Occelli, O. Marie and M. Mezouar. Nature Com. 9, 2913 (2018). metal hydrogen, high pressure, insulator-metal phase transition
The European XFEL: start of user operation

Video from the joint ESRF-ILL colloquia. In the past decade we have seen very important developments in the field of accelerator based X-ray user facilities, with the advent of 4th generation synchrotron sources and MHz rate free electron lasers. The first hard X-ray free-electron laser,...

Keywords: XFEL, free-electron laser

Resource type: video

The European XFEL: start of user operation https://pan-training.eu/materials/the-european-xfel-start-of-user-operation Video from the joint ESRF-ILL colloquia. In the past decade we have seen very important developments in the field of accelerator based X-ray user facilities, with the advent of 4th generation synchrotron sources and MHz rate free electron lasers. The first hard X-ray free-electron laser, LCLS (US) became operational in 2009 and over the last decade four additional hard X-ray FELs have begun user operation. Among these, the Eu-XFEL is the first hard XFEL powered by a superconducting linear accelerator, which enables MHz rate pulse generation. A specificity of XFELs is their very short pulse duration (10-100fs) opening new scientific opportunities to probe matter at the atomic scale, with chemical selectivity and bulk sensitivity, and at the relevant timescales. After many years of construction, user operation at the Eu-XFEL ramped up gradually, and between 2017 and 2019 six instruments were delivered to the user community. In this talk I will first briefly introduce the present performance of the facility in terms of electron and photon beam characteristics. I will then give an overview of recent science highlights and comment on some important challenges ahead. XFEL, free-electron laser
X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF)

Synchrotron X-ray techniques for industry R&I: X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at the ESRF by Dr Gema Martinez-Criado

Scientific topics: x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

Keywords: XRF

Resource type: video

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) https://pan-training.eu/materials/x-ray-fluorescence-spectroscopy-xrf Synchrotron X-ray techniques for industry R&I: X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at the ESRF by Dr Gema Martinez-Criado x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy XRF PaN Community
Small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS & WAXS)

Synchrotron X-ray techniques for industry R&I: SAXS & WAXS at the ESRF by Dr Michael Sztucki

Scientific topics: small angle x-ray scattering, wide angle x-ray scattering

Keywords: SAXS, WAXS

Resource type: video

Small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS & WAXS) https://pan-training.eu/materials/small-and-wide-angle-x-ray-scattering-saxs-waxs Synchrotron X-ray techniques for industry R&I: SAXS & WAXS at the ESRF by Dr Michael Sztucki small angle x-ray scattering wide angle x-ray scattering SAXS, WAXS PaN Community
Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy

Synchrotron X-ray techniques for industry R&I: Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the ESRF by Dr Sakura Pascarelli

Scientific topics: extended x-ray absorption fine structure

Keywords: xanes & exafs

Resource type: video

Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy https://pan-training.eu/materials/extended-x-ray-absorption-fine-structure-exafs-spectroscopy Synchrotron X-ray techniques for industry R&I: Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the ESRF by Dr Sakura Pascarelli extended x-ray absorption fine structure xanes & exafs PaN Community